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T Kumar, M Bryant, K Cantrell, S Song, D McDonald, H Tubb, S Farmer, A Lewis, E Lukacz, L Brubaker, and R Knight. Effects of Variation in Sample Storage Conditions and Swab Order on 16S Vaginal Microbiome Analyses. Microbiol Spectr. 2023 Dec 14;:e0371223. doi: 10.1128/spectrum.03712-23. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 38095462


Agarwal K, Choudhury B, Robinson LS, Morrill SR, Bouchibiti Y, Chilin-Fuentes D, Rosenthal SB, Fisch KM, Peipert JF, Lebrilla CB, Allsworth JE, Lewis AL, Lewis WG. Resident microbes shape the vaginal epithelial glycan landscape. Sci Transl Med. 2023 Nov 29;15(724):eabp9599. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abp9599. Epub 2023 Nov 29. PubMed PMID: 38019934. First published as: medRxiv, 2022.02. 23.22271417

Morrill SR, Saha S, Varki AP, Lewis WG, Ram S, Lewis AL. Gardnerella Vaginolysin Potentiates Glycan Molecular Mimicry by Neisseria gonorrhoeaeJ Infect Dis. 2023 Nov 28;228(11):1610-1620. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiad391. PubMed PMID: 37722688; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC10681867. First published as: bioRxiv, 2023.04. 15.537036



Minooei F, Gilbert NM, Zhang L, Sarah NeCamp M, Mahmoud MY, Kyser AJ, Tyo KM, Watson WH, Patwardhan R, Lewis WG, Frieboes HB, Lewis AL, Steinbach-Rankins JM. Rapid-dissolving electrospun nanofibers for intra-vaginal antibiotic or probiotic delivery. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2023 Jul 19:S0939-6411(23)00181-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2023.07.009. PMID: 37479065

Kyser AJ, Masigol M, Mahmoud MY, Ryan M, Lewis WG, Lewis AL, Frieboes HB, Steinbach-Rankins JM. Fabrication and characterization of bioprints with Lactobacillus crispatus for vaginal application. J Control Release. 2023 May;357:545-560. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2023.04.023. Epub 2023 Apr 21.PMID: 37076014

Mahmoud MY, Wesley M, Kyser A, Lewis WG, Lewis AL, Steinbach-Rankins JM, Frieboes HB. Lactobacillus crispatus-loaded electrospun fibers yield viable and metabolically active bacteria that kill Gardnerella in vitro. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2023 Jun;187:68-75. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2023.04.011. Epub 2023 Apr 20.PMID: 37086869

Herold SE, Kyser AJ, Orr MG, Mahmoud MY, Lewis WG, Lewis AL, Steinbach-Rankins JM, Frieboes HB. Release Kinetics of Metronidazole from 3D Printed Silicone Scaffolds for Sustained Application to the Female Reproductive Tract. Biomed Eng Adv. 2023 Jun;5:100078. doi: 10.1016/j.bea.2023.100078. Epub 2023 Feb 9.PMID: 37123989 

AJ Kyser, MY Mahmoud, SE Herold, WG Lewis, AL Lewis, JM Steinbach-Rankins, HB Frieboes. Formulation and characterization of pressure-assisted microsyringe 3D-printed scaffolds for controlled intravaginal antibiotic release. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 641, 123054

Ha, Diana; Ghebrendrias, Selam; Meadows, Audra; LaCoursiere, Daphne Yvette; Lewis, Amanda; Lawson, Mark; Morales, Michael; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia; Brubaker, Linda. The Culture and Justice Quorum at University of California, San Diego: A Departmental Approach to Dismantling Structural Racism INNOVATION REPORT

in Academic Medicine (AcadMed-D-22-01336R4 online ahead of print, March 01, 2023).

Lewis AL, Toukach P, Bolton B, Chen X, Frank M, Lütteke T, Knirel Y, Schoenhofen I, Varki A, Vinogradov E, Woods R, Zachara N, Zhang J, Kamerling JP, Neelamegham S  and the SNFG discussion group. Cataloging natural sialic acids and other nonulosonic acids (NulOs), and their representation using the Symbol Nomenclature for Glycans (SNFG). Glycobiology, Volume 33, Issue 2, February 2023, Pages 99–103,


Gilbert NM, Ackerman AL, Lewis AL. The urogenital microbiota in urinary tract diseases. Editorial: Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2022 Dec 8;12:1096168. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2022.1096168. eCollection 2022.

Dillard LR, Glass EM,  Lewis AL,  Thomas-White K,  Papin JA. Metabolic Network Models of the Gardnerella Pangenome Identify Key Interactions with the Vaginal Environment.  Msystems 8 (1), e00689-22 Dec 2022


Gilbert NM, O'Brien VP, Waller C, Batourina E, Mendelsohn CL, Lewis AL. Gardnerella Exposures Alter Bladder Gene Expression and Augment Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infection in Mice. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2022 Jun 16;12:909799. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2022.909799. eCollection 2022.PMID: 35782131 

Morrill SR, Agarwal K, Saha S, Lewis WG, Gilbert NM, Lewis AL. Models of Murine Vaginal Colonization by Anaerobically Grown Bacteria. J Vis Exp. 2022 May 25;(183). doi: 10.3791/64032. PMID: 35695538

Lewis AL, Chen X, Schnaar RL, Varki A.In: Varki A, Cummings RD, Esko JD, Stanley P, Hart GW, Aebi M, Mohnen D, Kinoshita T, Packer NH, Prestegard JH, Schnaar RL, Seeberger PH, editors. Sialic acids and other Nonulosonic Acids. Essentials of Glycobiology [Internet]. 4th edition. Cold Spring Harbor (NY): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 2022. Chapter 15. PMID: 35536973 

Whitfield C, Szymanski CM, Lewis AL, Aebi M. Eubacteria. In: Varki A, Cummings RD, Esko JD, Stanley P, Hart GW, Aebi M, Mohnen D, Kinoshita T, Packer NH, Prestegard JH, Schnaar RL, Seeberger PH, editors. Essentials of Glycobiology [Internet]. 4th edition. Cold Spring Harbor (NY): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 2022. Chapter 21. PMID: 35536956 

Lewis AL, Szymanski CM, Schnaar RL, Aebi M. Bacterial and Viral Infections. In: Varki A, Cummings RD, Esko JD, Stanley P, Hart GW, Aebi M, Mohnen D, Kinoshita T, Packer NH, Prestegard JH, Schnaar RL, Seeberger PH, editors. Essentials of Glycobiology [Internet]. 4th edition. Cold Spring Harbor (NY): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 2022. Chapter 42. PMID: 35536954 

Lewis AL, Kohler JJ, Aebi M. Microbial Lectins Hemagglutinins, Adhesins, and Toxins. In: Varki A, Cummings RD, Esko JD, Stanley P, Hart GW, Aebi M, Mohnen D, Kinoshita T, Packer NH, Prestegard JH, Schnaar RL, Seeberger PH, editors. Essentials of Glycobiology [Internet]. 4th edition. Cold Spring Harbor (NY): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 2022. Chapter 37. PMID: 35536938 



O'Brien VP, Lewis AL, Gilbert NM. Bladder Exposure to Gardnerella Activates Host Pathways Necessary for Escherichia coli Recurrent UTI. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2021 Dec 6;11:788229. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.788229. eCollection 2021. PMID: 34938672 ​


Gilbert NM, Choi B, Du J, Collins C, Lewis A, Putonti C, and Wolfe AJ. A mouse model displays host and bacterial strain differences in Aerococcus urinae urinary tract infection. Biology Open (accepted)


Agarwal K, Lewis AL. 2021 Vaginal sialoglycan foraging by Gardnerella vaginalis: Mucus barriers as a meal for unwelcome guests? Glycobiology. Apr 5:cwab024. doi: 10.1093/glycob/cwab024. Online ahead of print.


The structure and diversity of strain-level variation in vaginal bacteria. Tortelli BA, Lewis AL, Fay JC. Microb Genom. 2021 Mar;7(3). doi: 10.1099/mgen.0.000543. Epub 2021

Gilbert NM, Foster L, Cao B, Yin Y, Mysorekar IU, Lewis AL. Gardnerella vaginalis promotes group B Streptococcus vaginal colonization, enabling ascending uteroplacental infection in pregnant mice. Amer. J. Obstet. Gynecol. November 25, 2020 DOI: 


Agarwal KA, Robinson LS, Aggarwal S, Lynne Foster LR, Hernandez-Leyva A, Lin H, Tortelli BA, O’Brien VP, Miller L, Kau AL, Reno H, Gilbert NM, Lewis WG, Lewis AL. Glycan cross-feeding supports mutualism between Fusobacterium and the vaginal microbiota.  PLoS Biology, 2020, Aug 25th  BioRxIV 463349; doi:

Hilt EE, Putonti C, Thomas-White K, Lewis AL, Visick KL, Gilbert NM, Wolfe AJ. Aerococcus urinae Isolated from Women with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: In Vitro Aggregation and Genome Analysis. J Bacteriol. 2020 Jun 9;202(13). doi: 10.1128/JB.00170-20. Print 2020 Jun 9. PubMed PMID: 32284319; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7283593.

Recurrent Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infection Triggered by Gardnerella vaginalis Bladder Exposure in Mice.

O'Brien VP, Joens MS, Lewis AL, Gilbert NM.J Vis Exp. 2020 Dec 4;(166):10.3791/61967. doi: 10.3791/61967.PMID: 33346201


Morrill S, Gilbert NM, Lewis AL. Gardnerella vaginalis as a Cause of Bacterial Vaginosis: Appraisal of the Evidence From in vivo Models. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2020;10:168. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2020.00168. eCollection 2020. Review. PubMed PMID: 32391287; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7193744.


Lewis AL, Laurent LC. USPSTF 2020 Recommendations on Screening for Asymptomatic Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy. JAMA. 2020 Apr 7;323(13):1253-1255. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.22311. PubMed PMID: 32259215


Lewis AL, Gilbert NM. Roles of the vagina and the vaginal microbiota in urinary tract infection: evidence from clinical correlations and experimental models. GMS Infect Dis. 2020;8:Doc02. doi: 10.3205/id000046. eCollection 2020. Review. PubMed PMID: 32373427; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7186798. 

Tortelli BA, Lewis WG, Allsworth JE, Member-Meneh N, Foster LR, Reno HE, Peipert JF, Fay JC, Lewis AL. Associations between the vaginal microbiome and Candida colonization in women of reproductive age. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020 May;222(5):471.e1-471.e9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2019.10.008. Epub 2019 Oct 22. PubMed PMID: 31654610; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7236091.



O'Brien VP, Gilbert NM, Lebratti T, Agarwal K, Foster L, Shin H, Lewis AL. Low-dose inoculation of Escherichia coli achieves robust vaginal colonization and results in ascending infection accompanied by severe uterine inflammation in mice. PLoS One. 2019;14(7):e0219941. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0219941. eCollection 2019. PubMed PMID: 31329630; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6645506.


Gilbert NM, Lewis WG, Li G, Sojka DK, Lubin JB, Lewis AL. Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella bivia Trigger Distinct and Overlapping Phenotypes in a Mouse Model of Bacterial Vaginosis. J Infect Dis. 2019 Aug 30;220(7):1099-1108. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy704. PubMed PMID: 30715405; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6736442.


Brookheart RT, Lewis WG, Peipert JF, Lewis AL, Allsworth JE. Association between obesity and bacterial vaginosis as assessed by Nugent score. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019 May;220(5):476.e1-476.e11. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2019.01.229. Epub 2019 Jan 29. PubMed PMID: 30707966; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7232937.


Robinson LS, Schwebke J, Lewis WG, Lewis AL. Identification and characterization of NanH2 and NanH3, enzymes responsible for sialidase activity in the vaginal bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis. J Biol Chem. 2019 Apr 5;294(14):5230-5245. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA118.006221. Epub 2019 Feb 5. PubMed PMID: 30723162; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6462536.


Gilbert NM, Lewis AL. Covert pathogenesis: Transient exposures to microbes as triggers of disease. PLoS Pathog. 2019 Mar;15(3):e1007586. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007586. eCollection 2019 Mar. PubMed PMID: 30921443; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6438445.


McDonald ND, DeMeester KE, Lewis AL, Grimes CL, Boyd EF. Structural and functional characterization of a modified legionaminic acid involved in glycosylation of a bacterial lipopolysaccharide. J Biol Chem. 2018 Dec 7;293(49):19113-19126. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA118.004966. Epub 2018 Oct 12. PubMed PMID: 30315110; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6295735.


Lin AE, Autran CA, Szyszka A, Escajadillo T, Huang M, Godula K, Prudden AR, Boons GJ, Lewis AL, Doran KS, Nizet V, Bode L. Human milk oligosaccharides inhibit growth of group B Streptococcus. J Biol Chem. 2017 Jul 7;292(27):11243-11249. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M117.789974. Epub 2017 Apr 17. PubMed PMID: 28416607; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5500792.


Gilbert NM, O'Brien VP, Lewis AL. Transient Microbiota Exposures activate dormant Escherichia coli infection in the Bladder and Drive Severe Outcomes of Recurrent Disease. PLoS Pathog. 2017 Mar 30;13(3):e1006238. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006238. eCollection 2017 Mar. PMID:28358889


Robinson LS, Lewis WG, LewisAL. The Sialate O-acetylesterase from Gut Bacteroidetes Species enables Sialidase-mediated Cross Species Foraging of 9-O-acetylated Sialoglycans.  J. Biol. Chem. 2017 Jul 14;292(28): 11861-11872. doi: 10.1074/jbcM116.769232 PMID: 28526748.


Amegashie CP, Gilbert NM, Peipert JF, Allsworth JE, Lewis WG, Lewis AL. Relationship between Nugent Score and Vaginal Epithelial Exfoliation.  PLoS One. 2017 May 31;12(5):e0177797. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177797. PMID28562623




Kline, KA; Lewis, AL. Gram-positive Uropathgens, Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infection, and the Emerging Microbiota of the Urinary Tract.  Microbiology Spectrum. 2016, March 11; 4(2)


Yamaguchi, M; Hirose, Y, Nakata, M; Uchiyama, S; Yamaguchi, Y; Goto, K; Sumitomo, T; Lewis, AL; Kawabata, S; Nizet, V. Evolutionary Inactivation of a Sialidase in Group B Streptococcus. Sci Rep. 2016 Jun 29;6:28852. doi: 10.1038/srep28852. PMID 27352769


 Lewis, WG and Lewis, AL. A new Catalog of Microbiological Tools for Women's Infectious Disease Research. Genome Announc. 2016 Sep 29;4(5). pii: e00890-16. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00890-16. PMID 2768833 


O'Brien VP, Hannan TJ, Yu L, Livny J, Roberson ED, Schwartz DJ, Souza S, Mendelsohn CL, Colonna M, Lewis AL, Hultgren SJ. A Mucosal Imprint left by prior E. coli Infection Sensitizes to Recurrent Disease.  Nat Microbiol. 2016 Oct 31;2:16196. doi: 10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.196. PMID: 27798558


Lewis, AL; Robinson, LS; Agarwal, K; and Lewis, WG. Discovery and Characterization of de novo Sialic acid Biosynthesis in the phylum Fusobacterium Glycobiology. 2016 2016 Oct;26(10):1107-1119. doi: 10.1093/glycob/cww068. PMID: 27613803


Robinson, LR; Perry, JC; Lek, S; Wollam, A; Sodergren, E; Weinstock, G; Lewis, AL; Lewis, WG.  Draft Genome Sequences of 15 Gardnerella vaginalis strains Isolated from the Vaginas of Women with and without Bacterial Vaginosis.  Genome Announc. 2016 Sep 29;4(5). pii: e00879-16. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00879-16. PMID 27688326


Lewis, AL; Deitzler, G; Ruiz, M; Weimer, C; Park, S; Robinson, L; Wollam, A; Hallsworth-Pepin, K; Mitreva, M; Lewis; WG. Draft Genome Sequences of 11 human vaginal isolates of Actinobacteria. Genome Announc. 2016 Sep 29;4(5). pii: e00887-16. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00887-16. PMID 27688328


Deitzler, G; Ruiz, M; Weimer, C; Park, S; Robinson, L; Wollam, A; Hallsworth-Pepin, K; Mitreva, M; Lewis, AL; Lewis, WG. Draft Genome Sequences of 14 Firmicutes isolated from the Human Vagina. Genome Announc. 2016 Sep 29;4(5). pii: e00888-16. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00888-16. PMID 27688329


Deitzler, G; Ruiz, M; Lu, W; Robinson, L; Weimer, C; Park, S; Wollam, A; Hallsworth-Pepin, K; Mitreva, M. Lewis, WG; Lewis, AL; Draft Genome Sequences of Seven Gram-negative Vaginal Bacteria. Genome Announc. 2016 Sep 29;4(5). pii: e00889-16. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00889-16. PMID 2768833


Weimer, C; Deitzler, G; Ruiz, M; Robinson, L; Park, S; Hallsworth-Pepin, K; Mitreva, M; Lewis, W; Lewis, AL. Draft Genome Sequences for 12 Bacterial Isolates Obtained from the Urine of Pregnant Women. Genome Announc. 2016 Sep 29;4(5). pii: e00882-16. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00882-16. PMID 27688327



Kline, K.A.; Schwartz, D.J.; Gilbert, NM; Lewis, A.L. Impact of Host Age and Parity on Susceptibility to Severe Urinary Tract Infection in a Murine Model. PLoS One. 2014 May 16;9(5):e97798. PMID: 24835885


Lubin, J.B.; Lewis, W.G.; Gilbert, N.M.; Almagro-Moreno, S.; Boyd, E.F.; Lewis, A.L Host-like carbohydrates promote bloodstream survival of Vibrio vulnificus in vivo. Infect Immun. 2015 Aug;83(8):3126-36. Epub 2015 May 26.PMID: 2601547


Lewis, WG; Robinson, LS; Gilbert, NM; Lewis, AL. Degradation, Foraging, and Depletion of Mucus Sialoglycans by the Vaginal-Adapted Actinobacterium Gardnerella vaginalis. J Biol Chem. 2013 Apr 26;288(17):12067-79. PMID: 23479734

Faculty of 1000 Recommended, Highlighted in Town and Style magazine and Fit Pregnancy Magazine              

Gilbert, NM; Lewis, WG; Robinson, LS;  Lewis, AL. Clinical Features of Bacterial Vaginosis in a Murine Model of Vaginal Infection with Gardnerella vaginalis. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e59539. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059539. Epub 2013 Mar 19. PMID: 23527214

Highlighted in Town and Style magazine and Fit Pregnancy Magazine


Gilbert, NM; O’Brien, V; Hultgren, S; Macones, GA; Lewis, WG; Lewis, AL. Urinary Tract Infection as a Preventable Cause of Pregnancy Complications: Opportunities, Challenges, and a Global Call to Action.   Global Adv. Health Med. 2013;2(5):59-69. PMID: 24416696



Lewis, WG; Robinson, LS; Perry, JC; Bick, JL; Peipert, JF; Allsworth, JE; Lewis, AL. 2012. Hydrolysis of Secreted Immunoglobulin A (IgA) in ex Vivo and Biochemical Models of Bacterial Vaginosis. J Biol Chem. 287(3): 2079-89. PMID: 22134918

Highlighted in the ASBMB Blog “Wild-types”


Ricaldi,JN; Matthias, MA; Vinetz, JM; Lewis, AL. 2012 Expression of Sialic Acids and other Nonulosonic Acids in Leptospira. BMC Microbiol. 12 (1):161. PMID: 22853805


Kline, K.A.; Schwartz, D.J.; Gilbert, NM; Hultgren, S.J.; Lewis, A.L. Immune Modulation by Group B Streptococcus  Influences Host Susceptibility to Urinary Tract Infection by Uropathogenic E. coli. Infect. Immun. 2012 Dec;80(12):4186-94. PMID 22988014


Lewis AL, Lewis WG. 2012. Host Sialoglycans and Bacterial Sialidases: A Mucosal Perspective. Cell Microbiol. 2012 14(8):1174-82. PMID: 22519819




Weiman S, Uchiyama S, Lin FY, Chaffin D, Varki A, Nizet V, Lewis AL. 2010. O-Acetylation of Sialic Acid on Group B Streptococcus Inhibits Neutrophil Suppression and Virulence. Biochem J. 428(2):163-8.


Lewis, A.L.; Lubin, J.B.; Argade, S.; Naidu, N.; Choudhury, B.; and Boyd, E.F. 2011. Genomic and Metabolic Profiling of Nonulosonic Acids in Vibrionaceae reveal Biochemical Phenotypes of Allelic Divergence in V. vulnificus Appl. Environ. Microbiol. Aug;77(16):5782-93. PMID: 21724895


Kline, K.A.; Schwartz, D.J.; Lewis, W.G.; Hultgren, S.J.; Lewis, A.L. 2011. Immune Activation and Suppression by Group B Streptococcus in a Murine Model of Urinary Tract Infection. Infect Immun. Sep;79(9):3588-95. PMID: 21690238




Carlin, A.; Uchiyama, S.; Chang, Y.; Lewis, A.L.; Nizet, V.; Varki, A. 2009. Molecular Mimicry of Host Sialylated Glycans Allows a Bacterial Pathogen to Engage Neutrophil Siglec-9 and Dampen the Innate Immune Response. Blood. 113(14):3333-6.


Pannaraj PS, Edwards MS, Ewing KT, Lewis AL, Rench MA, Baker CJ. 2009. Group B streptococcal conjugate vaccines elicit functional antibodies independent of strain O-acetylation. Vaccine.16;27 (33):4452-6.


Weiman S, Dahesh S, Carlin AF, Varki A, Nizet V, Lewis AL. 2009. Genetic and Biochemical Modulation of Sialic Acid O-Acetylation on Group B Streptococcus: Phenotypic and Functional Impact. Glycobiology. (11):1204-13.


Lewis, A.L.; Varki, A. Evolutionary Considerations in Studying the Sialome: Sialic Acids and the Host-Pathogen Interface. Bioinformatics for Glycobiology and Glycomics: An Introduction.  pgs 69-88. Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2009.


Lewis, A.L.; Desa, N.; Hansen, E.E.; Knirel, Y.; Gordon, J.; Gagneux, P.; Nizet, V.; Varki, A. 2009. Innovations in Host and Microbial Sialic Acid Biosynthesis Revealed by Phylogenomic Prediction of Nonulosonic Acid Structure. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A. 11;106 (32):13552-7.




Lewis, A.L.; Cao, H.; Patel, S.K.; Diaz, S.; Ryan, W.; Carlin, A.F.; Thon, V.; Lewis, W.G.; Varki, A.; Chen, X.; Nizet, V. 2007. NeuA sialic acid O-acetylesterase activity modulates O-acetylation of capsular polysaccharide in Group B Streptococcus. J. Biol. Chem. 282 (38):27562-71.


Carlin, A.F.; Lewis, A.L.; Varki, A.; Nizet, V. 2007. Group B streptococcal capsular sialic acids interact with siglecs (immunoglobulin-like lectins) on human leukocytes. J Bacteriol. 189(4):1231-7.


Lewis, A.L.; Hensler, M.; Nizet, V; Varki, A. 2006. The group B streptococcal sialic acid O-acetyltransferase is encoded by neuD, a conserved component of bacterial sialic acid biosynthetic gene clusters. J Biol Chem.  281(16):11186.


Lewis, A. L.; Altheide, T.K.; Varki, A.; Arden, K.; Varki, N.M. 2005. Combining Parenting and a Science Career. Science 307(5716): 1720.


Hayakawa, T.; Angata,T.; Lewis, A.L.; Mikkelsen, T.; Varki, N.; Varki, A. 2005. A human-specific gene in microglia. Science 309 (5741):1693.


Lewis, A.L.; Nizet, V.; Varki. A.  2004. Discovery and Characterization of Sialic Acid O-Acetylation in Group B Streptococcus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(30): 11123-11128


Doolittle, R.F.; York, A.L. 2002. Bacterial Actins? An Evolutionary Perspective. BioEssays 24: 293-296.

(AL Lewis, maiden name York)

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