Gardnerella elicits several BV-like features in mice
A. Sialidase activity in vaginal fluids measured using the 4MU-Sia assay. B-C. Free and total sialic acids measured by DMB-HPLC, and D. Epithelial cells in vaginal washes enumerated by blinded observers. E. H&E-stained vaginal sections illustrate the convergence of bacteria on the epithelium of Gardnerella infected mice.
Gilbert NM, Lewis WG, Lewis AL. 2013 Clinical features of bacterial vaginosis in a murine model of vaginal infection with Gardnerella vaginalis. PLoS One. 8(3):e59539. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone. 0059539. Epub 2013 Mar 19. PMID: 23527214. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC360228
Gilbert NM, Lewis WG, Li G, Sojka DK, Lubin JB, and Lewis AL. Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella bivia trigger distinct and overlapping phenotypes in a mouse model of bacterial vaginosis. Journal of Infectious Disease. 2019 Feb 1. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy704. PMID 30715405 PMCID: PMC6736442
Agarwal KA, Robinson LS, Aggarwal S, Lynne Foster LR, Hernandez-Leyva A, Lin H, Tortelli BA, O’Brien VP, Miller L, Kau AL, Reno H, Gilbert NM, Lewis WG, Lewis AL. Glycan cross-feeding supports mutualism between Fusobacterium and the vaginal microbiota. PLoS Biology, 2020 Aug 25;18(8):e3000788.doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3000788. eCollection 2020 Aug. PMID: 32841232 PMCID: PMC7447053
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Transmission electron micrograph of Gardnerella vaginalis
in association with a mouse vaginal epithelial cell.